Effect of a High-Protein, Low-Carbohydrate Diet on Blood Glucose Control in People Wi

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    • Effect of a High-Protein, Low-Carbohydrate Diet on Blood Glucose Control in People Wi

      Effect of a High-Protein, Low-Carbohydrate Diet on Blood Glucose Control in People With Type 2 Diabetes

      Mary C. Gannon1,2,3, and Frank Q. Nuttall1,3

      1 Metabolic Research Laboratory and the Section of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Nutrition, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota
      2 Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota
      3 Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota


      Abstract

      There has been interest in the effect of various types and amounts of dietary carbohydrates and proteins on blood glucose. On the basis of our previous data, we designed a high-protein/low-carbohydrate, weight-maintaining, nonketogenic diet. Its effect on glucose control in people with untreated type 2 diabetes was determined. We refer to this as a low-biologically-available-glucose (LoBAG) diet. Eight men were studied using a randomized 5-week crossover design with a 5-week washout period. The carbohydrate:protein:fat ratio of the control diet was 55:15:30. The test diet ratio was 20:30:50. Plasma and urinary ß-hydroxybutyrate were similar on both diets. The mean 24-h integrated serum glucose at the end of the control and LoBAG diets was 198 and 126 mg/dl, respectively. The percentage of glycohemoglobin was 9.8 ± 0.5 and 7.6 ± 0.3, respectively. It was still decreasing at the end of the LoBAG diet. Thus, the final calculated glycohemoglobin was estimated to be ~6.3–5.4%. Serum insulin was decreased, and plasma glucagon was increased. Serum cholesterol was unchanged. Thus, a LoBAG diet ingested for 5 weeks dramatically reduced the circulating glucose concentration in people with untreated type 2 diabetes. Potentially, this could be a patient-empowering way to ameliorate hyperglycemia without pharmacological intervention. The long-term effects of such a diet remain to be determined.

      Address correspondence and reprint requests to Mary C. Gannon, PhD, Metabolic Research Laboratory (111G), VA Medical Center, One Veterans Drive, Minneapolis, MN 55417. E-mail: ganno004{at}umn.edu

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    • Re: Effect of a High-Protein, Low-Carbohydrate Diet on Blood Glucose Control in Peopl

      A recent follow up to this one though the ratio (carb:protein:fat) seems to have changed a little?

      Metabolic effect of a LoBAG30 diet in men with type 2 diabetes

      Frank Q. Nuttall,1,2 Kelly Schweim,1 Heidi Hoover,1 and Mary C. Gannon1,2,3

      1Metabolic Research Laboratory, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, and Department of 2Medicine and 3Food Science and Nutrition, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota

      Submitted 9 January 2006 ; accepted in final form 17 May 2006



      Abstract

      We recently reported that in subjects with untreated type 2 diabetes a 5-wk diet of 30:30:40 carbohydrate/protein/fat ratio resulted in a significant decrease in 24-h integrated glucose, total %glycohemoglobin, and total cholesterol compared with a control diet of 55:15:30 carbohydrate/protein/fat given at the beginning of the 5-wk period. Body weight was stable and insulin was unchanged. We now present data on other hormones and metabolites considered to be affected by dietary macronutrient changes. The test diet resulted in an elevated fasting plasma total IGF-I, but not growth hormone. Urinary free cortisol was increased. Serum renin and urinary aldosterone remained unchanged. Blood pressure was stable. Serum creatinine and uric acid were increased. Urinary microalbumin was decreased. Creatinine clearance, serum B12, folate, homocysteine, TSH, and free thyroxine were unchanged. Total triiodothyronine was decreased. Plasma {alpha}-amino nitrogen, urea nitrogen, and serum albumin were increased. Urea production rate was increased such that a new steady state was present. The calculated urea production rate accounted for 84% of protein ingested on the control diet but only 68% on the test diet, suggesting net nitrogen retention on the latter. Overall, the lack of negative effects, the improved glucose control, and the positive nitrogen balance suggest such a diet will be beneficial for older subjects with type 2 diabetes. Nevertheless, the long-term effects and general applicability of the diet remain to be determined.

      Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab
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