Long-term consumption of a carbohydrate-restricted diet does not induce deleterious..

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    • Long-term consumption of a carbohydrate-restricted diet does not induce deleterious..

      I haven't been updating this section lately but I try to keep the low carb research page up to date, anyway whilst adding this to the page I thought some may like this abstract, so chucked it here as well.


      The optimal diet is a very high fat low carbohyrate diet.
      Long-term consumption of a carbohydrate-restricted diet does not induce deleterious metabolic effects


      Abstract

      Carbohydrate (CHO)-restricted diets have been recommended for weight loss and to prevent obesity, but their long-term effects have not been fully elucidated. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of long-term (>1 year) consumption of a low-CHO high-fat diet (“The optimal diet,” developed by Dr Kwaśniewski referenced herein) on lipid profile, glycemic control, and cardiovascular disease risk factors in healthy subjects. Of 31 “optimal” dieters enrolled in the study (17 women and 14 men, aged 51.7 ± 16.6 years), 22 declared adherence to the diet for more than 3 years. Average energy intake and principal nutrients consumed were assessed from 6-day dietary records provided by the participants. In most dieters, concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate, free fatty acids, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol exceeded the upper limits of the reference ranges for nonstarved subjects. The metabolic profiles of most subjects were positive for several indicators, including relatively low concentrations of triacylglycerols, high levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and normal ratios of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol/HDL-C and total cholesterol/HDL-C. In most subjects, plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, glucagon, cortisol, homocysteine, glycerol, and C-reactive protein were within reference ranges. Notably, in all but one subject, the homeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance remained below the threshold for diagnosis of insulin resistance. These results indicate that long-term (>1 year) compliance with a low-CHO high-fat “optimal diet” does not induce deleterious metabolic effects and does not increase the risk for cardiovascular disease, as evidenced by maintenance of adequate glycemic control and relatively low values for conventional cardiovascular risk factors.

      Keywords: Diet; Carbohydrate restricted; Insulin resistance; Cardiovascular diseases; Humans

      Abbreviations:
      BE, base excess; BMI, body mass index; BMR, basal metabolic rate; CHD, coronary heart disease; CHO, carbohydrates; CK, creatine kinase; CRP, C-reactive protein; CVD, cardiovascular disease; β-HB, β-hydroxybutyrate; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; HOMAIR, homeostasis model assessment—insulin resistance index; LCD, low-carbohydrate diet; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; oLAb, antibodies against oxidized LDL; RBC, red blood cell; SB, standard bicarbonate; SBP, systolic blood pressure; α-T, α-tocopherol; γ-T, γ-tocopherol; T-C, total cholesterol; TG, triacylglycerol; tHcy, total plasma homocysteine

      Abstract: Grieb et al, Long-term consumption of a carbohydrate-restricted diet does not induce deleterious metabolic effects. Nutr Res. 2008 Dec;28(12):825-33.
      Low Carb in a Nutshell ~ Carb Counts ~ Research ~ Measurements/Conversions ~ Glossary


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    • It was reading about Dr. Kwasniewski's PFC ratios, on Peter Dobromylskyj's blog, Hyperlipid, that got me on LCHF, to start reading about how protein is metabolized, and also, why it might not be necessary to be in strong ketosis. I really enjoy reading Peter's blog, even if I don't understand the science. I just read enough to get the gist, and his conclusions.

      Peter has some posts about Dr. Kwasniewski, and mentions his work sometimes, in his comments after various posts. Here is one post, Kwasniewski, Praise the Lard, and another Kwasniewski Paper.

      Someone gave me a pdf of Dr. K's book, Homo Optimus, and I am making my way through it. The translation into English is rough, and it takes some work to decipher, as some of the words do not have the meaning the author or editor gave them. I got a copy of Dr. K's book, Optimal Nutrition, through abebooks, an online bookseller, and am enjoying it. Again, the translation is rough.

      Also, found a Polish food website, which gave me a bit more understanding of why Dr. K chose the foods, recipes, and menus he did for his books. He does make a point of saying in his books, that the Optimal Diet can be adapted to individual needs and preferences, as well as to each culture's cuisine.
      LCHF Maintenance, Goal: Health First.
      Daily averages of 50-60P: 110-130F: 30-35C

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