The Effect of a Low-Carbohydrate Diet on Bone Turnover
"Although the patients on the low-carbohydrate diet did lose significantly more weight than the controls did, the diet did not increase bone turnover markers compared with controls at any time point. Further, there was no significant change in the bone turnover ratio compared with controls."
Protein consumption is an important predictor of lower limb bone mass in elderly women
"These data suggest that protein intakes for elderly women above current recommendations may be necessary to optimize bone mass."
Dietary Protein: An Essential Nutrient For Bone Health
"Consequently, dietary proteins are as essential as calcium and vitamin D for bone health and osteoporosis prevention. Furthermore, there is no consistent evidence for superiority of vegetal over animal proteins on calcium metabolism, bone loss prevention and risk reduction of fragility fractures."
Dietary protein, calcium metabolism, and skeletal homeostasis revisited
"Dietary protein intakes at and below 0.8 g/kg were associated with a probable reduction in intestinal calcium absorption sufficient to cause secondary hyperparathyroidism. The long-term consequences of these low-protein diet-induced changes in mineral metabolism are not known, but the diet could be detrimental to skeletal health. Of concern are several recent epidemiologic studies that demonstrate reduced bone density and increased rates of bone loss in individuals habitually consuming low-protein diets. Studies are needed to determine whether low protein intakes directly affect rates of bone resorption, bone formation, or both."
Low Protein Intake: The Impact on Calcium and Bone Homeostasis in Humans
"The highest protein diet resulted in hypercalciuria with no change in serum parathyroid hormone. Surprisingly, within 4 d, the low protein diet induced secondary hyperparathyroidism that persisted for 2 wk. The secondary hyperparathyroidism induced by the low protein diet was attributed to a reduction in intestinal calcium absorption (as assessed by dual stable calcium isotopes). The long-term consequences of these low protein-induced changes in calcium metabolism are not known, but they could be detrimental to skeletal health. Several recent epidemiological studies demonstrate reduced bone density and increased rates of bone loss in individuals habitually consuming low protein diets."
Further studies of the effect of a high protein diet as meat on calcium metabolism
During the long-term high meat intake and during the short- term high meat studies, there was no significant change of the urinary or fecal calcium nor of the calcium balance. There was also no significant change of the intestinal absorption of calcium during the high meat intake. These long- and short-term studies have confirmed our previous results that a high protein intake, given as meat, does not lead to hypercalciuria and does not induce calcium loss."